edge
More at rubyonrails.org: More Ruby on Rails

Action Text Overview

This guide provides you with all you need to get started in handling rich text content.

After reading this guide, you will know:

1 What is Action Text?

Action Text brings rich text content and editing to Rails. It includes the Trix editor that handles everything from formatting to links to quotes to lists to embedded images and galleries. The rich text content generated by the Trix editor is saved in its own RichText model that's associated with any existing Active Record model in the application. Any embedded images (or other attachments) are automatically stored using Active Storage and associated with the included RichText model.

2 Trix compared to other rich text editors

Most WYSIWYG editors are wrappers around HTML’s contenteditable and execCommand APIs, designed by Microsoft to support live editing of web pages in Internet Explorer 5.5, and eventually reverse-engineered and copied by other browsers.

Because these APIs were never fully specified or documented, and because WYSIWYG HTML editors are enormous in scope, each browser's implementation has its own set of bugs and quirks, and JavaScript developers are left to resolve the inconsistencies.

Trix sidesteps these inconsistencies by treating contenteditable as an I/O device: when input makes its way to the editor, Trix converts that input into an editing operation on its internal document model, then re-renders that document back into the editor. This gives Trix complete control over what happens after every keystroke, and avoids the need to use execCommand at all.

3 Installation

Run bin/rails action_text:install to add the Yarn package and copy over the necessary migration. Also, you need to set up Active Storage for embedded images and other attachments. Please refer to the Active Storage Overview guide.

After the installation is complete, a Rails app using Webpacker should have the following changes:

  1. Both trix and @rails/actiontext should be required in your JavaScript pack.

    // application.js
    require("trix")
    require("@rails/actiontext")
    
  2. The trix stylesheet should be imported into actiontext.scss.

    @import "trix/dist/trix";
    

    Additionally, this actiontext.scss file should be imported into your stylesheet pack.

    // application.scss
    @import "./actiontext.scss";
    

4 Examples

Adding a rich text field to an existing model:

# app/models/message.rb
class Message < ApplicationRecord
  has_rich_text :content
end

Note that you don't need to add a content field to your messages table.

Then refer to this field in the form for the model:

<%# app/views/messages/_form.html.erb %>
<%= form_with model: message do |form| %>
  <div class="field">
    <%= form.label :content %>
    <%= form.rich_text_area :content %>
  </div>
<% end %>

And finally, display the sanitized rich text on a page:

<%= @message.content %>

To accept the rich text content, all you have to do is permit the referenced attribute:

class MessagesController < ApplicationController
  def create
    message = Message.create! params.require(:message).permit(:title, :content)
    redirect_to message
  end
end

5 Avoid N+1 queries

If you wish to preload the dependent ActionText::RichText model, assuming your rich text field is named 'content', you can use the named scope:

Message.all.with_rich_text_content # Preload the body without attachments.
Message.all.with_rich_text_content_and_embeds # Preload both body and attachments.

6 Custom styling

By default, the Action Text editor and content is styled by the Trix defaults. If you want to change these defaults, you'll want to remove the app/assets/stylesheets/actiontext.scss linker and base your stylings on the contents of that file.

You can also style the HTML used for embedded images and other attachments (known as blobs). On installation, Action Text will copy over a partial to app/views/active_storage/blobs/_blob.html.erb, which you can specialize.

7 API / Backend development

  1. A backend API (for example, using JSON) needs a separate endpoint for uploading files that creates an ActiveStorage::Blob and returns its attachable_sgid:

    {
      "attachable_sgid": "BAh7CEkiCG…"
    }
    
  2. Take that attachable_sgid and ask your frontend to insert it in rich text content using an <action-text-attachment> tag:

    <action-text-attachment sgid="BAh7CEkiCG…"></action-text-attachment>
    

This is based on Basecamp, so if you still can't find what you are looking for, check this Basecamp Doc.

Feedback

You're encouraged to help improve the quality of this guide.

Please contribute if you see any typos or factual errors. To get started, you can read our documentation contributions section.

You may also find incomplete content or stuff that is not up to date. Please do add any missing documentation for master. Make sure to check Edge Guides first to verify if the issues are already fixed or not on the master branch. Check the Ruby on Rails Guides Guidelines for style and conventions.

If for whatever reason you spot something to fix but cannot patch it yourself, please open an issue.

And last but not least, any kind of discussion regarding Ruby on Rails documentation is very welcome on the rubyonrails-docs mailing list.